Methods for Assessing
the Effects of Mixtures of Chemicals

Edited by:

Velimir B. Vouk - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA

Gordon C. Butler - National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada

Arthur C. Upton - Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA

Dennis V. Parke - University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK and

Susan C. Asher, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada

Prepared by
Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluations of Chemicals (SGOMSEC)

Published on behalf of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE)

of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU),

and the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)

of the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP),

and the International Labour Organization (ILO)



Chichester, New York, Brisbane, Toronto, Singapore

Copyright 1987: by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE)

Click on a chapter number to open pdf.

Title Pages
Table of Contents
Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals
Participants of the Workshop


Chapter 1. Introduction, General Conclusions, and Recommendations
Chapter 2. Environmental Transport
Chapter 3. Indicators of Human Exposure and Their Use in Monitoring and Epidemiology
Chapter 4. Metabolism and Biochemical Mechanisms of Combined Action
Chapter 5. Use of Toxicity Data on Single Chemicals to Predict the Effects of Mixtures
Chapter 6. Testing Complex Mixtures
Chapter 7. Methods for Assessing the Effects of Mixtures on Animal and Plant Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems


Testing Strategy for Complex Mixtures of Carcinogens - Roy E. Albert
Mixed Chemical Mutagens: Detection of Induced Mutagenic Effects in Exposed Human Populations - John Ashby and Stuart Kettle
Structure-Activity Relationships within and between Chemical Classes - Bernard D. Astill
Monitoring of Environmental Chemicals - Georg Becher and Alf Bjoseth
Evaluation of Mixtures: Interpretation of Results and Prediction of Effects in Humans - Hermann M. Bolt
Toxicokinetics, Toxification, Detoxification: Methods to Assess the Effects of Exposure to Multiple Chemicals - James W. Bridges and Peter H. Bach
Estimating the Impact of Pulses of Mixtures of Chemicals upon Aquatic Organisms - John Cairns, Jr. and Arthur L. Buikema, Jr.
Population Parameters as Indices of Effects of Mixtures of Chemicals on Aquatic Populations: The Need for Methods - D. Calamari and G. Pacchetti
Methods of Clinical Surveillance: Effects on Liver and Other Organs - Harold J. Fallon
Statistical and Mathematical Aspects: Distinction between Natural and Induced Variation - Roger H. Green
Methodological Issues in Epidemiological Studies of Disease Clusters and Environmental Contamination - Peter Greenwald and Gladys Block
Statistical Aspects of Chemical Mixtures - David G. Hoel
Estimation of Human Exposure to Mixtures of Chemicals: Methods of Clinical Surveillance - F. Kaloyanova and T. Vergieva
Methods for Assessing the effects on Non-human Biota of Mixtures of Chemicals as Applied to Specific Taxonomic Representatives of Individual or Groups of Species -Eugene E. Kenaga
Modelling the Fate and Exposure of Complex Mixtures of Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment - Russell S. Kinerson
Induction, Inhibition and Receptor Interactions - Laurence J. King and Dennis V. Parke
Occupational Experience of Exposure to Mixtures of Chemicals - C.R. Krishna Murti
Methods for Assessing the Effects on Non-human Biota of Mixtures of Chemicals: Tests for Pathological Effects on Insects - Vladimir Landa, Thomas Soldan and Jan Sula
Toward Modelling the Ecological Effects of Chemicals Acting Jointly - Ray Lassiter and Steven Broderius
Special Tests in Aquatic Toxicity for Chemical Mixtures: Interactions and Modification of Response by Variation of Physicochemical Conditions - R. Lloyd
Comparative Metabolish of Mixtures of Chemicals by Animals, Plants, and Microorganisms and Their Significance in Alteration of Pollutants in the Environment - Fumio Matsumura
Genotoxic Chemicals in the Human Environment: Their Identification and Interaction - Douglas B. McGregor
Evaluation of Mixtures: Laboratory Tests - Robert A. Neal
Mechanisms of Interaction and Modulation of Response - Paul M. Newberne
Mixed Exposures: Assessment and Evaluation of Some Carcinogenic and Non-carcinogenic Effects - Gunnar F. Nordberg and Katarina Victorin
Environmental Fate of Mixtures as a Background for Human Exposure Monitoring - A. Opperhuizen, W.G.H. van der Naald, F.A.P.C. Gobas and O. Hutzinger
Biochemical Mechanisms of Combined Action - David B. Peakall
Predicting Concentrations of Atmospheric Pollutants - Warren T. Piver
Combined, Complex, and Joint Effect of Chemical Compounds - I.V. Sanotski
Formation and Alteration of Mixtures by Biotic and Abiotic Processes in Soil - I. Scheunert, F. Korte and W. Klein
Epidemiology of Occupational Exposures with Special Reference to Mixtures of Chemicals - Richard S.F. Schilling
Functional Processes of Ecosystems: Their Use in Assessing the Effects of Mixtures of Chemicals - P.J. Sheehan
Modulation of Response: Environmental Factors - E. Somers
Risk Assessment is a Developing Science: Approaches to Improve Evaluation of Single Chemicals and Chemical Mixtures - J.F. Stara, R.J.F. Bruins, Michael L. Dourson, L.S. Erdreich, R.C. Hertzbrg, P.R. Durkin and William E. Pepeiko
Species Interactions - Glenn W. Suter II
Carcinogenicity and Genetic Toxicity Results on Single Chemicals: Implications for Testing Mixtures - Raymond W. Tennant, David M. DeMarini and Judson W. Spalding
Tests for Growth Retardation and Pathology in Fishes Exposed to Complex Mixtures: Experiences on Polluted River Water - Marten A. van der Gaag
Methods to Assess Drug-Drug and Drug-Chemical interactions: Problems that Arise in Their Application to the Prediction of Health Hazards from Exposure to Multiple Environmental Chemicals - Elliot S. Vesell
Biochemical Mechanisms of Combined Action of Atmospheric Pollutants upon Plants - A.R. Wellburn
Chemical Dosimetry in Biological Monitoring of Exposure to Toxic Chemicals - Gerald N. Wogan
Analysis of Cytogenetic Damage in Human Lymphocytes as a Biological Indicator of Mutagenic Effect - V.S. Zhurkov, K.N. Yakovenko and M.A. Pilinskaya